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% LLNCS DOCUMENT CLASS -- version 2.20 (10-Mar-2018)
% Springer Verlag LaTeX2e support for Lecture Notes in Computer Science
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%%   Minus         \-     Point         \.     Solidus       \/
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\ProvidesClass{llncs}[2018/03/10 v2.20
^^J LaTeX document class for Lecture Notes in Computer Science]
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\def\ackname{Acknowledgement.}
\def\andname{and}
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\def\appendixname{Appendix}
\def\chaptername{Chapter}
\def\claimname{Claim}
\def\conjecturename{Conjecture}
\def\contentsname{Table of Contents}
\def\corollaryname{Corollary}
\def\definitionname{Definition}
\def\examplename{Example}
\def\exercisename{Exercise}
\def\figurename{Fig.}
\def\keywordname{{\bf Keywords:}}
\def\indexname{Index}
\def\lemmaname{Lemma}
\def\contriblistname{List of Contributors}
\def\listfigurename{List of Figures}
\def\listtablename{List of Tables}
\def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
\def\noteaddname{Note added in proof}
\def\notename{Note}
\def\partname{Part}
\def\problemname{Problem}
\def\proofname{Proof}
\def\propertyname{Property}
\def\propositionname{Proposition}
\def\questionname{Question}
\def\remarkname{Remark}
\def\seename{see}
\def\solutionname{Solution}
\def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
\def\tablename{Table}
\def\theoremname{Theorem}}
\switcht@albion
% Names of theorem like environments are already defined
% but must be translated if another language is chosen
%
% French section
\def\switcht@francais{%\typeout{On parle francais.}%
 \def\abstractname{R\'esum\'e.}%
 \def\ackname{Remerciements.}%
 \def\andname{et}%
 \def\lastandname{ et}%
 \def\appendixname{Appendice}
 \def\chaptername{Chapitre}%
 \def\claimname{Pr\'etention}%
 \def\conjecturename{Hypoth\`ese}%
 \def\contentsname{Table des mati\`eres}%
 \def\corollaryname{Corollaire}%
 \def\definitionname{D\'efinition}%
 \def\examplename{Exemple}%
 \def\exercisename{Exercice}%
 \def\figurename{Fig.}%
 \def\keywordname{{\bf Mots-cl\'e:}}
 \def\indexname{Index}
 \def\lemmaname{Lemme}%
 \def\contriblistname{Liste des contributeurs}
 \def\listfigurename{Liste des figures}%
 \def\listtablename{Liste des tables}%
 \def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
 \def\noteaddname{Note ajout\'ee \`a l'\'epreuve}%
 \def\notename{Remarque}%
 \def\partname{Partie}%
 \def\problemname{Probl\`eme}%
 \def\proofname{Preuve}%
 \def\propertyname{Caract\'eristique}%
%\def\propositionname{Proposition}%
 \def\questionname{Question}%
 \def\remarkname{Remarque}%
 \def\seename{voir}
 \def\solutionname{Solution}%
 \def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
 \def\tablename{Tableau}%
 \def\theoremname{Th\'eor\`eme}%
}
%
% German section
\def\switcht@deutsch{%\typeout{Man spricht deutsch.}%
 \def\abstractname{Zusammenfassung.}%
 \def\ackname{Danksagung.}%
 \def\andname{und}%
 \def\lastandname{ und}%
 \def\appendixname{Anhang}%
 \def\chaptername{Kapitel}%
 \def\claimname{Behauptung}%
 \def\conjecturename{Hypothese}%
 \def\contentsname{Inhaltsverzeichnis}%
 \def\corollaryname{Korollar}%
%\def\definitionname{Definition}%
 \def\examplename{Beispiel}%
 \def\exercisename{\"Ubung}%
 \def\figurename{Abb.}%
 \def\keywordname{{\bf Schl\"usselw\"orter:}}
 \def\indexname{Index}
%\def\lemmaname{Lemma}%
 \def\contriblistname{Mitarbeiter}
 \def\listfigurename{Abbildungsverzeichnis}%
 \def\listtablename{Tabellenverzeichnis}%
 \def\mailname{{\it Correspondence to\/}:}
 \def\noteaddname{Nachtrag}%
 \def\notename{Anmerkung}%
 \def\partname{Teil}%
%\def\problemname{Problem}%
 \def\proofname{Beweis}%
 \def\propertyname{Eigenschaft}%
%\def\propositionname{Proposition}%
 \def\questionname{Frage}%
 \def\remarkname{Anmerkung}%
 \def\seename{siehe}
 \def\solutionname{L\"osung}%
 \def\subclassname{{\it Subject Classifications\/}:}
 \def\tablename{Tabelle}%
%\def\theoremname{Theorem}%
}
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{\mbox{\boldmath$\scriptscriptstyle#1$}}}
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{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr\gets
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{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptstyle##$\hfil\cr\gets
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{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\scriptscriptstyle##$\hfil\cr
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{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr<\cr
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{\vcenter{\offinterlineskip\halign{\hfil$\textstyle##$\hfil\cr>\cr
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\def\bbbm{{\rm I\!M}}
\def\bbbn{{\rm I\!N}} %natuerliche Zahlen
\def\bbbf{{\rm I\!F}}
\def\bbbh{{\rm I\!H}}
\def\bbbk{{\rm I\!K}}
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm C$}\hbox{\hbox
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\def\bbbq{{\mathchoice {\setbox0=\hbox{$\displaystyle\rm
Q$}\hbox{\raise
0.15\ht0\hbox to0pt{\kern0.4\wd0\vrule height0.8\ht0\hss}\box0}}
{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm Q$}\hbox{\raise
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle\rm T$}\hbox{\hbox
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rm T$}\hbox{\hbox
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\textstyle        \rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
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{\setbox0=\hbox{$\scriptstyle      \rm S$}\hbox{\raise0.5\ht0\hbox
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\def\bbbz{{\mathchoice {\hbox{$\mathsf\textstyle Z\kern-0.4em Z$}}
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\setlength\leftmargin    {\leftmargini}
\setlength\leftmarginii  {\leftmargini}
\setlength\leftmarginiii {\leftmargini}
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\def\tableofcontents{\chapter*{\contentsname\@mkboth{{\contentsname}}%
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 \def\authcount##1{\setcounter{auco}{##1}\setcounter{@auth}{1}}
 \def\lastand{\ifnum\value{auco}=2\relax
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\def\@dotsep{2}
\let\phantomsection=\relax
\def\hyperhrefextend{\ifx\hyper@anchor\@undefined\else
{}\fi}
\def\addnumcontentsmark#1#2#3{%
\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{\protect\numberline
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\def\addcontentsmark#1#2#3{%
\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{#3}{\thepage}\hyperhrefextend}}%
\def\addcontentsmarkwop#1#2#3{%
\addtocontents{#1}{\protect\contentsline{#2}{#3}{0}\hyperhrefextend}}%
\def\@adcmk[#1]{\ifcase #1 \or
\def\@gtempa{\addnumcontentsmark}%
  \or    \def\@gtempa{\addcontentsmark}%
  \or    \def\@gtempa{\addcontentsmarkwop}%
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}
\def\addtocmark{%
\phantomsection
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}
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 \else
      \nobreak
      \leaders\hbox{$\m@th \mkern \@dotsep mu.\mkern
      \@dotsep mu$}\hfill
      \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}%
 \fi\par
 \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
\def\l@title#1#2{\addpenalty{-\@highpenalty}
 \addvspace{8pt plus 1pt}
 \@tempdima \z@
 \begingroup
 \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@tocrmarg
 \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
 \parfillskip -\rightskip \pretolerance=10000
 \leavevmode \advance\leftskip\@tempdima \hskip -\leftskip
 #1\nobreak
 \leaders\hbox{$\m@th \mkern \@dotsep mu.\mkern
 \@dotsep mu$}\hfill
 \nobreak\hbox to\@pnumwidth{\hss #2}\par
 \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
\def\l@author#1#2{\addpenalty{\@highpenalty}
 \@tempdima=15\p@ %\z@
 \begingroup
 \parindent \z@ \rightskip \@tocrmarg
 \advance\rightskip by 0pt plus 2cm
 \pretolerance=10000
 \leavevmode \advance\leftskip\@tempdima %\hskip -\leftskip
 \textit{#1}\par
 \penalty\@highpenalty \endgroup}
\setcounter{tocdepth}{0}
\newdimen\tocchpnum
\newdimen\tocsecnum
\newdimen\tocsectotal
\newdimen\tocsubsecnum
\newdimen\tocsubsectotal
\newdimen\tocsubsubsecnum
\newdimen\tocsubsubsectotal
\newdimen\tocparanum
\newdimen\tocparatotal
\newdimen\tocsubparanum
\tocchpnum=\z@            % no chapter numbers
\tocsecnum=15\p@          % section 88. plus 2.222pt
\tocsubsecnum=23\p@       % subsection 88.8 plus 2.222pt
\tocsubsubsecnum=27\p@    % subsubsection 88.8.8 plus 1.444pt
\tocparanum=35\p@         % paragraph 88.8.8.8 plus 1.666pt
\tocsubparanum=43\p@      % subparagraph 88.8.8.8.8 plus 1.888pt
\def\calctocindent{%
\tocsectotal=\tocchpnum
\advance\tocsectotal by\tocsecnum
\tocsubsectotal=\tocsectotal
\advance\tocsubsectotal by\tocsubsecnum
\tocsubsubsectotal=\tocsubsectotal
\advance\tocsubsubsectotal by\tocsubsubsecnum
\tocparatotal=\tocsubsubsectotal
\advance\tocparatotal by\tocparanum}
\calctocindent
\def\l@section{\@dottedtocline{1}{\tocchpnum}{\tocsecnum}}
\def\l@subsection{\@dottedtocline{2}{\tocsectotal}{\tocsubsecnum}}
\def\l@subsubsection{\@dottedtocline{3}{\tocsubsectotal}{\tocsubsubsecnum}}
\def\l@paragraph{\@dottedtocline{4}{\tocsubsubsectotal}{\tocparanum}}
\def\l@subparagraph{\@dottedtocline{5}{\tocparatotal}{\tocsubparanum}}
\def\listoffigures{\@restonecolfalse\if@twocolumn\@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
 \fi\section*{\listfigurename\@mkboth{{\listfigurename}}{{\listfigurename}}}
 \@starttoc{lof}\if@restonecol\twocolumn\fi}
\def\l@figure{\@dottedtocline{1}{0em}{1.5em}}
\def\listoftables{\@restonecolfalse\if@twocolumn\@restonecoltrue\onecolumn
 \fi\section*{\listtablename\@mkboth{{\listtablename}}{{\listtablename}}}
 \@starttoc{lot}\if@restonecol\twocolumn\fi}
\let\l@table\l@figure
\renewcommand\listoffigures{%
    \section*{\listfigurename
      \@mkboth{\listfigurename}{\listfigurename}}%
    \@starttoc{lof}%
    }
\renewcommand\listoftables{%
    \section*{\listtablename
      \@mkboth{\listtablename}{\listtablename}}%
    \@starttoc{lot}%
    }
\ifx\oribibl\undefined
\ifx\citeauthoryear\undefined
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
     {\section*{\refname}
      \def\@biblabel##1{##1.}
      \small
      \list{\@biblabel{\@arabic\c@enumiv}}%
           {\settowidth\labelwidth{\@biblabel{#1}}%
            \leftmargin\labelwidth
            \advance\leftmargin\labelsep
            \if@openbib
              \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
              \itemindent -\bibindent
              \listparindent \itemindent
              \parsep \z@
            \fi
            \usecounter{enumiv}%
            \let\p@enumiv\@empty
            \renewcommand\theenumiv{\@arabic\c@enumiv}}%
      \if@openbib
        \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
      \else
        \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
      \fi
      \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000%
      \sfcode`\.=\@m}
     {\def\@noitemerr
       {\@latex@warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%
      \endlist}
\def\@lbibitem[#1]#2{\item[{[#1]}\hfill]\if@filesw
     {\let\protect\noexpand\immediate
     \write\@auxout{\string\bibcite{#2}{#1}}}\fi\ignorespaces}
\newcount\@tempcntc
\def\@citex[#1]#2{\if@filesw\immediate\write\@auxout{\string\citation{#2}}\fi
  \@tempcnta\z@\@tempcntb\m@ne\def\@citea{}\@cite{\@for\@citeb:=#2\do
    {\@ifundefined
       {b@\@citeb}{\@citeo\@tempcntb\m@ne\@citea\def\@citea{,}{\bfseries
        ?}\@warning
       {Citation `\@citeb' on page \thepage \space undefined}}%
    {\setbox\z@\hbox{\global\@tempcntc0\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname\relax}%
     \ifnum\@tempcntc=\z@ \@citeo\@tempcntb\m@ne
       \@citea\def\@citea{,}\hbox{\csname b@\@citeb\endcsname}%
     \else
      \advance\@tempcntb\@ne
      \ifnum\@tempcntb=\@tempcntc
      \else\advance\@tempcntb\m@ne\@citeo
      \@tempcnta\@tempcntc\@tempcntb\@tempcntc\fi\fi}}\@citeo}{#1}}
\def\@citeo{\ifnum\@tempcnta>\@tempcntb\else
               \@citea\def\@citea{,\,\hskip\z@skip}%
               \ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb\the\@tempcnta\else
               {\advance\@tempcnta\@ne\ifnum\@tempcnta=\@tempcntb \else
                \def\@citea{--}\fi
      \advance\@tempcnta\m@ne\the\@tempcnta\@citea\the\@tempcntb}\fi\fi}
\else
\renewenvironment{thebibliography}[1]
     {\section*{\refname}
      \small
      \list{}%
           {\settowidth\labelwidth{}%
            \leftmargin\parindent
            \itemindent=-\parindent
            \labelsep=\z@
            \if@openbib
              \advance\leftmargin\bibindent
              \itemindent -\bibindent
              \listparindent \itemindent
              \parsep \z@
            \fi
            \usecounter{enumiv}%
            \let\p@enumiv\@empty
            \renewcommand\theenumiv{}}%
      \if@openbib
        \renewcommand\newblock{\par}%
      \else
        \renewcommand\newblock{\hskip .11em \@plus.33em \@minus.07em}%
      \fi
      \sloppy\clubpenalty4000\widowpenalty4000%
      \sfcode`\.=\@m}
     {\def\@noitemerr
       {\@latex@warning{Empty `thebibliography' environment}}%
      \endlist}
      \def\@cite#1{#1}%
      \def\@lbibitem[#1]#2{\item[]\if@filesw
        {\def\protect##1{\string ##1\space}\immediate
      \write\@auxout{\string\bibcite{#2}{#1}}}\fi\ignorespaces}
   \fi
\else
\@cons\@openbib@code{\noexpand\small}
\fi
\def\idxquad{\hskip 10\p@}% space that divides entry from number
\def\@idxitem{\par\hangindent 10\p@}
\def\subitem{\par\setbox0=\hbox{--\enspace}% second order
                \noindent\hangindent\wd0\box0}% index entry
\def\subsubitem{\par\setbox0=\hbox{--\,--\enspace}% third
                \noindent\hangindent\wd0\box0}% order index entry
\def\indexspace{\par \vskip 10\p@ plus5\p@ minus3\p@\relax}
\renewenvironment{theindex}
               {\@mkboth{\indexname}{\indexname}%
                \thispagestyle{empty}\parindent\z@
                \parskip\z@ \@plus .3\p@\relax
                \let\item\par
                \def\,{\relax\ifmmode\mskip\thinmuskip
                             \else\hskip0.2em\ignorespaces\fi}%
                \normalfont\small
                \begin{multicols}{2}[\@makeschapterhead{\indexname}]%
                }
                {\end{multicols}}
\renewcommand\footnoterule{%
  \kern-3\p@
  \hrule\@width 2truecm
  \kern2.6\p@}
  \newdimen\fnindent
  \fnindent1em
\long\def\@makefntext#1{%
    \parindent \fnindent%
    \leftskip \fnindent%
    \noindent
    \llap{\hb@xt@1em{\hss\@makefnmark\ }}\ignorespaces#1}
\long\def\@makecaption#1#2{%
  \small
  \vskip\abovecaptionskip
  \sbox\@tempboxa{{\bfseries #1.} #2}%
  \ifdim \wd\@tempboxa >\hsize
    {\bfseries #1.} #2\par
  \else
    \global \@minipagefalse
    \hb@xt@\hsize{\hfil\box\@tempboxa\hfil}%
  \fi
  \vskip\belowcaptionskip}
\def\fps@figure{htbp}
\def\fnum@figure{\figurename\thinspace\thefigure}
\def \@floatboxreset {%
        \reset@font
        \small
        \@setnobreak
        \@setminipage
}
\def\fps@table{htbp}
\def\fnum@table{\tablename~\thetable}
\renewenvironment{table}
               {\setlength\abovecaptionskip{0\p@}%
                \setlength\belowcaptionskip{10\p@}%
                \@float{table}}
               {\end@float}
\renewenvironment{table*}
               {\setlength\abovecaptionskip{0\p@}%
                \setlength\belowcaptionskip{10\p@}%
                \@dblfloat{table}}
               {\end@dblfloat}
\long\def\@caption#1[#2]#3{\par\addcontentsline{\csname
  ext@#1\endcsname}{#1}{\protect\numberline{\csname
  the#1\endcsname}{\ignorespaces #2}}\begingroup
    \@parboxrestore
    \@makecaption{\csname fnum@#1\endcsname}{\ignorespaces #3}\par
  \endgroup}
% LaTeX does not provide a command to enter the authors institute
% addresses. The \institute command is defined here.
\newcounter{@inst}
\newcounter{@auth}
\newcounter{auco}
\newdimen\instindent
\newbox\authrun
\newtoks\authorrunning
\newtoks\tocauthor
\newbox\titrun
\newtoks\titlerunning
\newtoks\toctitle
\def\clearheadinfo{\gdef\@author{No Author Given}%
                   \gdef\@title{No Title Given}%
                   \gdef\@subtitle{}%
                   \gdef\@institute{No Institute Given}%
                   \gdef\@thanks{}%
                   \global\titlerunning={}\global\authorrunning={}%
                   \global\toctitle={}\global\tocauthor={}}
\def\institute#1{\gdef\@institute{#1}}
\def\institutename{\par
 \begingroup
 \parskip=\z@
 \parindent=\z@
 \setcounter{@inst}{1}%
 \def\and{\par\stepcounter{@inst}%
 \noindent$^{\the@inst}$\enspace\ignorespaces}%
 \setbox0=\vbox{\def\thanks##1{}\@institute}%
 \ifnum\c@@inst=1\relax
   \gdef\fnnstart{0}%
 \else
   \xdef\fnnstart{\c@@inst}%
   \setcounter{@inst}{1}%
   \noindent$^{\the@inst}$\enspace
 \fi
 \ignorespaces
 \@institute\par
 \endgroup}
\def\@fnsymbol#1{\ensuremath{\ifcase#1\or\star\or{\star\star}\or
   {\star\star\star}\or \dagger\or \ddagger\or
   \mathchar "278\or \mathchar "27B\or \|\or **\or \dagger\dagger
   \or \ddagger\ddagger \else\@ctrerr\fi}}
\def\inst#1{\unskip$^{#1}$}
\def\orcidID#1{\unskip$^{[#1]}$} % added MR 2018-03-10
\def\fnmsep{\unskip$^,$}
\def\email#1{{\tt#1}}
\AtBeginDocument{\@ifundefined{url}{\def\url#1{#1}}{}%
\@ifpackageloaded{babel}{%
\@ifundefined{extrasenglish}{}{\addto\extrasenglish{\switcht@albion}}%
\@ifundefined{extrasfrenchb}{}{\addto\extrasfrenchb{\switcht@francais}}%
\@ifundefined{extrasgerman}{}{\addto\extrasgerman{\switcht@deutsch}}%
\@ifundefined{extrasngerman}{}{\addto\extrasngerman{\switcht@deutsch}}%
}{\switcht@@therlang}%
\providecommand{\keywords}[1]{\def\and{{\textperiodcentered} }%
\par\addvspace\baselineskip
\noindent\keywordname\enspace\ignorespaces#1}%
\@ifpackageloaded{hyperref}{%
\def\doi#1{\href{https://doi.org/#1}{https://doi.org/#1}}}{
\def\doi#1{https://doi.org/#1}}
}
\def\homedir{\~{ }}
\def\subtitle#1{\gdef\@subtitle{#1}}
\clearheadinfo
%
%%% to avoid hyperref warnings
\providecommand*{\toclevel@author}{999}
%%% to make title-entry parent of section-entries
\providecommand*{\toclevel@title}{0}
%
\renewcommand\maketitle{\newpage
\phantomsection
  \refstepcounter{chapter}%
  \stepcounter{section}%
  \setcounter{section}{0}%
  \setcounter{subsection}{0}%
  \setcounter{figure}{0}
  \setcounter{table}{0}
  \setcounter{equation}{0}
  \setcounter{footnote}{0}%
  \begingroup
    \parindent=\z@
    \renewcommand\thefootnote{\@fnsymbol\c@footnote}%
    \if@twocolumn
      \ifnum \col@number=\@ne
        \@maketitle
      \else
        \twocolumn[\@maketitle]%
      \fi
    \else
      \newpage
      \global\@topnum\z@   % Prevents figures from going at top of page.
      \@maketitle
    \fi
    \thispagestyle{empty}\@thanks
%
    \def\\{\unskip\ \ignorespaces}\def\inst##1{\unskip{}}%
    \def\thanks##1{\unskip{}}\def\fnmsep{\unskip}%
    \instindent=\hsize
    \advance\instindent by-\headlineindent
    \if!\the\toctitle!\addcontentsline{toc}{title}{\@title}\else
       \addcontentsline{toc}{title}{\the\toctitle}\fi
    \if@runhead
       \if!\the\titlerunning!\else
         \edef\@title{\the\titlerunning}%
       \fi
       \global\setbox\titrun=\hbox{\small\rm\unboldmath\ignorespaces\@title}%
       \ifdim\wd\titrun>\instindent
          \typeout{Title too long for running head. Please supply}%
          \typeout{a shorter form with \string\titlerunning\space prior to
                   \string\maketitle}%
          \global\setbox\titrun=\hbox{\small\rm
          Title Suppressed Due to Excessive Length}%
       \fi
       \xdef\@title{\copy\titrun}%
    \fi
%
    \if!\the\tocauthor!\relax
      {\def\and{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\and}%
       \def\inst##1{}%    added MR 2017-09-20 to remove inst numbers from the TOC
       \def\orcidID##1{}% added MR 2017-09-20 to remove ORCID ids from the TOC
      \protected@xdef\toc@uthor{\@author}}%
    \else
      \def\\{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\newline}%
      \protected@xdef\scratch{\the\tocauthor}%
      \protected@xdef\toc@uthor{\scratch}%
    \fi
    \addtocontents{toc}{\noexpand\protect\noexpand\authcount{\the\c@auco}}%
    \addcontentsline{toc}{author}{\toc@uthor}%
    \if@runhead
       \if!\the\authorrunning!
         \value{@inst}=\value{@auth}%
         \setcounter{@auth}{1}%
       \else
         \edef\@author{\the\authorrunning}%
       \fi
       \global\setbox\authrun=\hbox{\def\inst##1{}%    added MR 2017-09-20 to remove inst numbers from the runninghead
                                    \def\orcidID##1{}% added MR 2017-09-20 to remove ORCID ids from the runninghead
                                    \small\unboldmath\@author\unskip}%
       \ifdim\wd\authrun>\instindent
          \typeout{Names of authors too long for running head. Please supply}%
          \typeout{a shorter form with \string\authorrunning\space prior to
                   \string\maketitle}%
          \global\setbox\authrun=\hbox{\small\rm
          Authors Suppressed Due to Excessive Length}%
       \fi
       \xdef\@author{\copy\authrun}%
       \markboth{\@author}{\@title}%
     \fi
  \endgroup
  \setcounter{footnote}{\fnnstart}%
  \clearheadinfo}
%
\def\@maketitle{\newpage
 \markboth{}{}%
 \def\lastand{\ifnum\value{@inst}=2\relax
                 \unskip{} \andname\
              \else
                 \unskip \lastandname\
              \fi}%
 \def\and{\stepcounter{@auth}\relax
          \ifnum\value{@auth}=\value{@inst}%
             \lastand
          \else
             \unskip,
          \fi}%
 \begin{center}%
 \let\newline\\
 {\Large \bfseries\boldmath
  \pretolerance=10000
  \@title \par}\vskip .8cm
\if!\@subtitle!\else {\large \bfseries\boldmath
  \vskip -.65cm
  \pretolerance=10000
  \@subtitle \par}\vskip .8cm\fi
 \setbox0=\vbox{\setcounter{@auth}{1}\def\and{\stepcounter{@auth}}%
 \def\thanks##1{}\@author}%
 \global\value{@inst}=\value{@auth}%
 \global\value{auco}=\value{@auth}%
 \setcounter{@auth}{1}%
{\lineskip .5em
\noindent\ignorespaces
\@author\vskip.35cm}
 {\small\institutename}
 \end{center}%
 }
% definition of the "\spnewtheorem" command.
%
% Usage:
%
%     \spnewtheorem{env_nam}{caption}[within]{cap_font}{body_font}
% or  \spnewtheorem{env_nam}[numbered_like]{caption}{cap_font}{body_font}
% or  \spnewtheorem*{env_nam}{caption}{cap_font}{body_font}
%
% New is "cap_font" and "body_font". It stands for
% fontdefinition of the caption and the text itself.
%
% "\spnewtheorem*" gives a theorem without number.
%
% A defined spnewthoerem environment is used as described
% by Lamport.
%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
\def\@thmcountersep{}
\def\@thmcounterend{.}
\def\spnewtheorem{\@ifstar{\@sthm}{\@Sthm}}
% definition of \spnewtheorem with number
\def\@spnthm#1#2{%
  \@ifnextchar[{\@spxnthm{#1}{#2}}{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}}}
\def\@Sthm#1{\@ifnextchar[{\@spothm{#1}}{\@spnthm{#1}}}
\def\@spxnthm#1#2[#3]#4#5{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
   {\@definecounter{#1}\@addtoreset{#1}{#3}%
   \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\expandafter\noexpand
     \csname the#3\endcsname \noexpand\@thmcountersep \@thmcounter{#1}}%
   \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
   \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#1}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#4}{#5}}%
                              \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
\def\@spynthm#1#2#3#4{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
   {\@definecounter{#1}%
   \expandafter\xdef\csname the#1\endcsname{\@thmcounter{#1}}%
   \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
   \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#1}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#3}{#4}}%
                               \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
\def\@spothm#1[#2]#3#4#5{%
  \@ifundefined{c@#2}{\@latexerr{No theorem environment `#2' defined}\@eha}%
  {\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
  {\newaliascnt{#1}{#2}%
  \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#3}%
  \global\@namedef{#1}{\@spthm{#1}{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#4}{#5}}%
  \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}}
\def\@spthm#1#2#3#4{\topsep 7\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
\refstepcounter{#1}%
\@ifnextchar[{\@spythm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}}{\@spxthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}}}
\def\@spxthm#1#2#3#4{\@spbegintheorem{#2}{\csname the#1\endcsname}{#3}{#4}%
                    \ignorespaces}
\def\@spythm#1#2#3#4[#5]{\@spopargbegintheorem{#2}{\csname
       the#1\endcsname}{#5}{#3}{#4}\ignorespaces}
\def\@spbegintheorem#1#2#3#4{\trivlist
                 \item[\hskip\labelsep{#3#1\ #2\@thmcounterend}]#4}
\def\@spopargbegintheorem#1#2#3#4#5{\trivlist
      \item[\hskip\labelsep{#4#1\ #2}]{#4(#3)\@thmcounterend\ }#5}
% definition of \spnewtheorem* without number
\def\@sthm#1#2{\@Ynthm{#1}{#2}}
\def\@Ynthm#1#2#3#4{\expandafter\@ifdefinable\csname #1\endcsname
   {\global\@namedef{#1}{\@Thm{\csname #1name\endcsname}{#3}{#4}}%
    \expandafter\xdef\csname #1name\endcsname{#2}%
    \global\@namedef{end#1}{\@endtheorem}}}
\def\@Thm#1#2#3{\topsep 7\p@ \@plus2\p@ \@minus4\p@
\@ifnextchar[{\@Ythm{#1}{#2}{#3}}{\@Xthm{#1}{#2}{#3}}}
\def\@Xthm#1#2#3{\@Begintheorem{#1}{#2}{#3}\ignorespaces}
\def\@Ythm#1#2#3[#4]{\@Opargbegintheorem{#1}
       {#4}{#2}{#3}\ignorespaces}
\def\@Begintheorem#1#2#3{#3\trivlist
                           \item[\hskip\labelsep{#2#1\@thmcounterend}]}
\def\@Opargbegintheorem#1#2#3#4{#4\trivlist
      \item[\hskip\labelsep{#3#1}]{#3(#2)\@thmcounterend\ }}
\if@envcntsect
   \def\@thmcountersep{.}
   \spnewtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}[section]{\bfseries}{\itshape}
\else
   \spnewtheorem{theorem}{Theorem}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
   \if@envcntreset
      \@addtoreset{theorem}{section}
   \else
      \@addtoreset{theorem}{chapter}
   \fi
\fi
%definition of divers theorem environments
\spnewtheorem*{claim}{Claim}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spnewtheorem*{proof}{Proof}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\if@envcntsame % alle Umgebungen wie Theorem.
   \def\spn@wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spothm{#1}[theorem]{#2}{#3}{#4}}
\else % alle Umgebungen mit eigenem Zaehler
   \if@envcntsect % mit section numeriert
      \def\spn@wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spxnthm{#1}{#2}[section]{#3}{#4}}
   \else % nicht mit section numeriert
      \if@envcntreset
         \def\spn@wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}
                                   \@addtoreset{#1}{section}}
      \else
         \def\spn@wtheorem#1#2#3#4{\@spynthm{#1}{#2}{#3}{#4}
                                   \@addtoreset{#1}{chapter}}%
      \fi
   \fi
\fi
\spn@wtheorem{case}{Case}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{conjecture}{Conjecture}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{corollary}{Corollary}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
\spn@wtheorem{definition}{Definition}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
\spn@wtheorem{example}{Example}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{exercise}{Exercise}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{lemma}{Lemma}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
\spn@wtheorem{note}{Note}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{problem}{Problem}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{property}{Property}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{proposition}{Proposition}{\bfseries}{\itshape}
\spn@wtheorem{question}{Question}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{solution}{Solution}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\spn@wtheorem{remark}{Remark}{\itshape}{\rmfamily}
\def\@takefromreset#1#2{%
    \def\@tempa{#1}%
    \let\@tempd\@elt
    \def\@elt##1{%
        \def\@tempb{##1}%
        \ifx\@tempa\@tempb\else
            \@addtoreset{##1}{#2}%
        \fi}%
    \expandafter\expandafter\let\expandafter\@tempc\csname cl@#2\endcsname
    \expandafter\def\csname cl@#2\endcsname{}%
    \@tempc
    \let\@elt\@tempd}
\def\theopargself{\def\@spopargbegintheorem##1##2##3##4##5{\trivlist
      \item[\hskip\labelsep{##4##1\ ##2}]{##4##3\@thmcounterend\ }##5}
                  \def\@Opargbegintheorem##1##2##3##4{##4\trivlist
      \item[\hskip\labelsep{##3##1}]{##3##2\@thmcounterend\ }}
      }
\renewenvironment{abstract}{%
      \list{}{\advance\topsep by0.35cm\relax\small
      \leftmargin=1cm
      \labelwidth=\z@
      \listparindent=\z@
      \itemindent\listparindent
      \rightmargin\leftmargin}\item[\hskip\labelsep
                                    \bfseries\abstractname]}
    {\endlist}
\newdimen\headlineindent             % dimension for space between
\headlineindent=1.166cm              % number and text of headings.
\def\ps@headings{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
   \let\@oddfoot\@empty\let\@evenfoot\@empty
   \def\@evenhead{\normalfont\small\rlap{\thepage}\hspace{\headlineindent}%
                  \leftmark\hfil}
   \def\@oddhead{\normalfont\small\hfil\rightmark\hspace{\headlineindent}%
                 \llap{\thepage}}
   \def\chaptermark##1{}%
   \def\sectionmark##1{}%
   \def\subsectionmark##1{}}
\def\ps@titlepage{\let\@mkboth\@gobbletwo
   \let\@oddfoot\@empty\let\@evenfoot\@empty
   \def\@evenhead{\normalfont\small\rlap{\thepage}\hspace{\headlineindent}%
                  \hfil}
   \def\@oddhead{\normalfont\small\hfil\hspace{\headlineindent}%
                 \llap{\thepage}}
   \def\chaptermark##1{}%
   \def\sectionmark##1{}%
   \def\subsectionmark##1{}}
\if@runhead\ps@headings\else
\ps@empty\fi
\setlength\arraycolsep{1.4\p@}
\setlength\tabcolsep{1.4\p@}
\endinput
%end of file llncs.cls